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Bs 2654 Tank Pdf Download ##VERIFIED##


EEMUA Publication 159 is considered to be the most comprehensive users' guide available on above ground vertical cylindrical, steel storage tanks. It is also used worldwide by regulators as an example of what good practice looks like.




Bs 2654 Tank Pdf Download



EEMUA 159 is intended to assist in the establishment of essential inspection and maintenance requirements in order to minimise in-service problems and extend the useful life of these storage tanks. It offers guidance on tanks built to BS, EN or API standards for the storage of petroleum and chemical feed-stocks and products and refrigerated gases. These standards include BS 2654, API 620 and API 650, DIN 4119-1 and -2, CODRES, G0801 and EN 14015. In addition, since EEMUA 159 contains information on many topics that are not covered in API 653, the EEMUA publication can be considered complementary to the API standard.


This new edition builds on previous work with additional material to reflect the advances in technology, understanding and operational information. Chapters that have been significantly updated include those on corrosion of tanks, general inspection techniques and interpretation of inspection data, fixed roofs, floating roofs, hydrotesting and probabilistic preventive maintenance (PPM). There are also completely new chapters on mothballing, turn-around procedures, aluminium domes and operation at elevated temperatures. Significantly, a new climate code has been added for Arctic conditions. There is also more focus on innovations and new inspection techniques.


The PPM methodology provides what is believed to be the world's only combined theory of risk based inspection (RBI) and reliability centred maintenance (RCM). The different and non-harmonised methodologies of RBI and RCM, since their initiations throughout various aspects of industry (not only storage tanks), have never been combined in the way proposed and implemented in EEMUA 159. The process is time-based, condition-based and reactive.


The publication sets out key features for planning and executing inspection, maintenance and repair works. It includes descriptions of the key tank components that require inspection and maintenance, degradation mechanisms and common inspection techniques, and details on tank lifting.


Comprehensive guidance is given on many key design features, on common problems experienced during operation and on repair methods. There are numerous new sections, such as on snow loading, planar tilt and overplating. Appendices offer guidance on how to perform assessment calculations on tank components, illustrated by means of sample calculations, as well as on repair methods.Click here for Amendment 1 to EEMUA Publication 159 Edition 5 (included in Imprint 08/2018).Need an online introduction or refresher on key aspects of EEMUA 159? Then check out EEMUA's certificated e-learning training courses in Dutch and English.EEMUA Publication 231 can be used in conjunction with EEMUA 159 to develop the scope of inspection for storage tanks.Not found what you are looking for? Ask EEMUAPlease note EEMUA Associates receive a 25% discount off the non-member price.


Oil storage tanks are typically thin-walled structures which are susceptible to buckling under external load. This paper explores the buckling behavior of two in-services 100,000 m3 open-topped tanks under external load by finite element simulation. The finite element analyses are first carried out to explore the stability of in-services tanks under the uniform external pressure and the wind load. And comparison with that three formulae which uses for calculating the critical buckling load of the tank under uniform external pressure. Then carried out the nonlinear buckling analysis by arc-length method, the results show that for in-services tanks, the linear elastic bifurcation analysis also is a good signal for the buckling load. Finally, this paper focus on the influence of wind girders and other reinforcement devices on the buckling behavior of in-services tanks and the strengthening mechanism of the stored liquid to in-service tanks with reinforcement devices. The reinforcement device affects the buckling behavior of the oil-storage tank by strengthening the stiffness of the top of the tank. However, the stored liquid through increasing the stiffness of the bottom of tanks to add the stability of tanks. And the result shows that compared to the oil-storage tank without reinforcement devices. The strengthening effect of the liquid on the tank containing reinforcement devices is more significant.


In the twenty-first century, petroleum as an important strategic energy reserve has received great attention from various countries [1,2,3]. With the increase in oil production, the form of the storage tank has changed from the simple equal-wall tank to the large storage tank with variable wall thickness. Especially in recent decades, as the oil industry of numerous countries expands, the types of oil tanks have changed dramatically. Oil-tanks changes from tens of thousands of cubic meters to more than 100,000 m3 of tanks.


Oil storage tanks are usually vertical cylindrical welded steel tanks, a typical thin-walled structure, which is prone to buckling and other damage under the action of wind load. Looking back on the past decades, the destruction of oil storage tanks in typhoons has been innumerable [4,5,6]. Therefore, in order to avoid huge economic losses and environmental pollution caused by the destruction of oil storage tanks in typhoons. The buckling failure of oil storage tanks and similar thin-walled cylindrical structures under wind load has been extensively reviewed by scholars in various countries in the past decade [7].


Flores and Godoy [5] studied the buckling behavior of short cylindrical shells under strong wind loads by a numerical method, where the model adopts the tanks that were destroyed during the hurricane. Portela and Godoy [8, 9] discussed the buckling problem of tanks with conical or dome roofs caused by wind loads, tested the sensitivity of defects by geometric nonlinear analysis, and studied the influence of floating plate on the buckling behavior of tanks by using the same cylindrical model and wind load.


In recent years, with the development of finite element technology, Zhao et al. [10] through a large number of numerical analyses, illustrated the buckling behavior of the storage tank. Zhao and Lin [11] has compared the buckling behavior of tanks of different sizes and studied the similarities and differences of them under wind load. Maraveas et al. [12] made a comparison of current storage tank standards in Europe and API650, and propose some constructive comments about the current standards. Amir et al. [13] considered the effect of corrosion effect and aging of surface steel cylindrical storage tank under external pressure on its buckling behavior. Uematsu et al. [14, 15] based on finite element analysis, studied the wind resistance design problem of wind-resistant structure of open-topped storage tanks and the influence of top/medium anti-winds device on buckling behavior.


Most of these are based on the tank parameters in the design stage. It focuses on the influence of the imperfection or the reinforcement device on the buckling behavior of empty tanks under the wind load. However, in-service tanks almost have installed different size parameters of reinforcement devices. And before weather disasters such as typhoons or strong winds arrive, the storage state of the tank is often not simply empty or full. Therefore, depending on the numerical simulation method recommended by EN1993-1-6 [16], linear buckling analysis and geometrically nonlinear buckling analysis, this paper explored the buckling behavior of each storage tank under wind load. And study the strengthening mechanism of stored liquid to in-service storage tanks and the influence of reinforcement devices on the buckling behavior of storage tanks.


The main contents are as follows: Sect. 2 expatiates upon the structure prototypes of two tanks. The finite element models used for analyses and the wind pressures on both external and internal walls of tanks. Section 3 presents the linear buckling behavior of the storage tank under wind load. And compared the calculation accuracy of three formulae which use for calculating the critical buckling load of the tank under the uniform external pressure. Section 4 investigated geometrically nonlinear buckling behavior. Section 5 discusses the influence of reinforcement devices on the buckling behavior of tanks and the strengthening mechanism of the stored liquid to the in-service storage tank containing reinforcement devices. Finally, some valuable conclusions are drawn in Sect. 6.


The tanks analyzed and compared in this paper are open-topped tanks of 100,000 m3 in service of Sinopec, named Tank1 and Tank2. Figure 1 shows the relative sizes of different tanks. The walls of those two tanks are similar in thickness and have reinforcement devices of nearly the same size. These two types of tanks reflect the structural parameters of a batch of open-topped tanks in China.


The study of the external pressure of tanks can be divided into two parts: the uniform external pressure and the wind load. The form of uniform external pressure is simple, but the wind load distribution on the tank is various complicated.


The distribution of pressure around vertical cylindrical tanks under wind load has been studied in many literatures. Accordingly, the wind pressure P acting on the structure surfaces can be defined as [17]:


Because the height of the tank is generally not high, so the change of wind load wind pressure coefficient in the height direction can be ignored. Those studies are only needed to consider the change of the circumferential upper-pressure coefficient of the tank. And in the study of the circumferential wind pressure coefficient of the tank more perfected, the distribution of wind loads can use the Fourier series decomposition expression as follows: 350c69d7ab


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